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In the first biography, Sima Qian says some report that Laolaizi came from Chu, was a contemporary of Confucius, and he authored a work in fifteen sections which speaks of the practical uses of the Daoist teachings.

But Sima Qian leaves it undecided whether he thinks Laolaizi should be identified with Laozi, even if he does include this reference in the section on Laozi. (that is, Qinshihuang, or the first emperor of China).

Laozi recommends to Wuzhi that he try to release Confucius from the fetters of his tendency to make rules and human discriminations (for example, right/wrong; beautiful/ugly) and set him free to wander with the .

Lao Dan addresses Confucius by his personal name "Qiu" in three passages.

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The internal structure of the DDJ is only one ground for the denial of a single author for the text.

The fact that we also now know there were multiple versions of the DDJ, even as early as 300 B. E., also suggests that it is unlikely that a single author wrote just one book that we now know as the DDJ.

Consider that for almost 2,000 years the Chinese text used by commentators in China and upon which all except the most recent Western language translations were based has been called the , after the commentator who made a complete edition of the DDJ sometime between 226-249 C. Although Wang Bi was not a Daoist, the commentary he wrote after collecting and editing the text became a standard interpretive guide, and generally speaking even today scholars depart from his arrangement of the actual text only when they can make a compelling argument for doing so.

We cannot be sure, then, that there is any real memory of Confucius’s occupation being preserved for us, as the story may be an entire fiction meant to make a point about the inadequacy of Confucius’s teachings.

Finally, in Ch.14, , Lao Dan makes a direct attack not only on the rules and regulations of Confucius, but also the teachings of the Mohists, and the veneration of the ancient emperors and legendary sages of the past, displaying his preference for experiential oneness with (hereafter, DDJ) represent collectively one basis for the traditional association of Laozi as author of the text. 3, Qin Shi valorizes Laozi by saying that he accomplished much, without appearing to do so, which is a reference both to the Old Master’s rejection of pursuit of fame and power and also praise for his conduct as Qin Shi’s praise of Laozi is also consistent with Laozi’s teaching to Yangzi Ju in Ch. Such conduct and attitudes are encouraged strongly in DDJ 2, 7, 22, 24, 51 and 77. E., it was accepted by tradition and lore that Laozi was the author of the DDJ.

Three are in the Inner Chapters, eight occur in chapters 11-14 in the Yellow Emperor sections of the text (chs.

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