Owners of standalone devices have a bit more to worry about as they typically aren’t nearly as protected as a laptop.
In 2016, then-FBI Director James Comey said in a Q&A that he placed a piece of tape over the webcam on his laptop to prevent hackers from seeing through his webcam. Although it sounds archaic, if the old tape-over-the-camera technique is good enough for a Director of the FBI, then it should be good for the rest of us, right?
If you’re asking about laptop webcam, then see answer b) from above.
You got to compromise the whole computer to access the webcam.
cartoonist Randall Munroe illustrated this in “Password Strength,” writing, “Through 20 years of effort, we’ve successfully trained everyone to use passwords that are hard for humans to remember, but easy for computers to guess.” The National Institute of Standards and Technology, which originally recommended the aforementioned password splatter, now recommends verifiers to avoid composition rules and expiration dates and encourages users to make longer, memorizable passwords.
Cybersecurity company Sophos suggests using passphrases with appropriate capitalization and spacing.
If you create a good search term and scroll enough, you’ll be able to access plenty of totally unprotected webcams, without any hacking or exploitations skills whatsoever.